Computers build "real" houses and assemble new houses. This profession is even cooler!

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  Under the background of the country’s vigorous promotion of prefabricated buildings, the constructors of prefabricated buildings have experienced many new changes since they first appeared. At the same time, the "design standardization, component factory and construction mechanization" have also prompted relevant employees to realize the butterfly change from "work" to "craftsman".

  "In the past, we needed 40 people to work continuously for 15 days to complete the production task, but now it only takes 8 days." On December 15th, Yang Cheng, the foreman and senior engineer of the assembled steel structure processing base of MCC Chongqing Construction Company, said in an interview with the reporter of Workers Daily that the new construction concept of "factory-built and field-installed" not only greatly improved the production efficiency, but also promoted the manufacturing workers to upgrade their skills.

  The 14th Five-Year Construction Development Plan issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development proposes that prefabricated buildings should account for more than 30% of new buildings, which will make "design standardization, component factory and construction mechanization" a reality, which not only makes the work content of prefabricated building builders change, but also urges relevant employees to realize the butterfly change from "worker" to "craftsman".

  "Made on the computer ‘ True ’ House "

  "In the past, prefabricated components were mostly used in the basic parts of buildings such as stairs and external walls, and the requirements for construction drawing design were far from high." Su Chuan, chief engineer of the new library construction project of Chongqing Urban Construction Archives of Chongqing Branch of China Construction Third Bureau, told the reporter that in 2018, he first came into contact with prefabricated buildings in another housing construction project in Chongqing. Only the stairs in this project were produced in the factory and installed on site.

  According to Su Chuan, at that time, the workers on the project only needed to construct according to the plan of the stairs, and the on-site scheduling was almost the same as the traditional operation. Now, the proportion of this project is 65.96%. Therefore, we must see the digital model before construction, that is, we must first build a "real" house on the computer.

  The reporter learned that in the past two years, prefabricated buildings have been widely used in housing construction, municipal transportation and other fields, and their design accuracy is millimeter level, and some key connection points even reach micron level. How to use information technology to design an optimal model is particularly important.

  "Made on the computer ‘ True ’ The house is simple to say but difficult to do. " Liu Guanqi, director of the design center of Chongqing Construction Industry Co., Ltd. of MCC Construction Engineering Group and a member of Ren Xiangfu’s national skill master studio, said that the design of prefabricated building models requires designers to accurately grasp the influence of welding, polishing and other links on accuracy during factory production, and how to lay out water, electricity and so on.

  "After the prefabricated buildings are widely used, the front-end designers use software to undertake the duties of factory producers and terminal builders." Liu Guanqi told reporters that after the deep integration of the new generation of information technology and the construction industry, the production of prefabricated components, terminal construction and design showed the trend of "integrated" operation. At present, the newly hired designers with high academic qualifications need to work in construction projects and production workshops for 2-3 years to be independent.

  "Although the overall model of the building was not designed by us, the designers on the project also undertook the tasks of designing and improving the mold for the component factory and finding the best construction scheme for the site builders." Su Chuan said that the construction technology of prefabricated buildings has broken down the barriers between different types of work and exchanged needed goods with each other.

  "From imagination to ‘ Follow the map ’ "

  "In the past, we mainly relied on imagination to produce some prefabricated components with complex shapes. Now, with a three-dimensional model, we can ‘ Follow the map ’ " . In Yang Cheng’s view, the wide application of prefabricated buildings makes the component production and informatization deeply integrated, on the one hand, it puts forward higher requirements for the comprehensive quality of workers in processing plants; On the other hand, it also turns abstraction into concreteness.

  For example, Yang Cheng said that a steel column weighing about 50 tons and 40 meters high is usually composed of A column, H column, box column, etc. In the past, after the design team designed all the components in a plane form, the production workshop could only carry out a single assembly line operation according to the drawings. If the workers in one of the positions lacked spatial imagination, they could not complete the processing tasks as required, and subsequent production would not be possible. Now a column has been built in the design stage, and each component can also show its parameters and shapes separately, so that the production can be visualized and all types of work can be operated at the same time.

  "The definition of prefabricated building builders has been extended to the whole production and construction chain of equipped buildings, rather than a single construction site installer." Yang Cheng believes that through in-depth integration with advanced manufacturing technology and a new generation of information technology, the work of prefabricated building builders runs through the "whole process" of model design, prefabricated component production and floor installation, and the direct connection between each link is becoming closer and closer.

  "Don’t look at the production of components, you only need to process them according to the model, but only if you can digest the digital model twice, and you can also operate intelligent production and testing equipment. After the components leave the factory, some key processes need to be docked with on-site installers, or even directly stationed in the construction site." Many workers in the processing base told reporters that they are not only manufacturing workers, but also construction workers and digital industry workers, which requires them to transform into a "multi-functional" direction.

  In this regard, Su Chuan said frankly that because the prefabricated buildings in Chongqing are in a stage of rapid development, there is a shortage of construction talents for prefabricated buildings. Sometimes, on-site assembly also needs the cooperation of designers and factory workers.

  "Physical activity" becomes "technical activity"

  "This is the third assembled construction site I contacted, but compared with before, the assembly of this project is more difficult and more demanding now." Du Xiaosheng, 35, is a hoisting worker in the aforementioned archives project. In his eyes, the biggest change brought about by the popularity of prefabricated buildings is that construction workers have changed from "manual work" to "technical work".

  Du Xiaojiang said that in the first two construction sites, only some external walls and stairs were assembled. After the components arrived, they were mostly assembled by manpower. Now, hoisting has become the core link of assembly. The components weighing several tons are all hoisted, leveled and corrected by machinery.

  "The new construction technology not only made me say goodbye to eating ‘ Strength rice ’ I learned new knowledge and gave me more career choices in the future. " Mr. Du said that because of his experience in driving cranes, he will soon be able to work independently after entering the construction site in July this year through "old and new" and regular training. At the same time, under the standardized operation mode, he worked closely with designers, surveyors, plumbers and other types of work on the site. During frequent exchanges, he also learned some skills from other positions.

  Now, Mr. Du not only undertakes the task of hoisting, but also assists the project manager in compiling the on-site installation scheme of prefabricated components and coordinating the on-site stacking of components.

  In the interview, the reporter learned that with the popularity of prefabricated buildings, 80% of the construction tasks have been completed in the factory. On-site workers only need to arrange according to the figures and operate like building blocks. In order to ensure the safety of construction, the project is only constructed during the day, and the working hours of workers are reduced, but the income is increased rapidly due to work efficiency.

  "In the construction industry, the aging of workers has become a common phenomenon, especially skilled jobs that need long-term accumulated experience, such as pay-off workers, carpenters and steel workers, which are even more scarce. However, new technology learning is not as boring as traditional architectural methods, and you can get started quickly if you are smart and eager to learn. " Su Chuan said that there are more and more young people on prefabricated construction sites.